"On Target Application with Superior Drift Control"
Active Ingredients - The actual toxicants or pest control materials in a pesticide formulation containing solvents, emulsifiers, carriers or other ingredients.
Adjuvant - A material which is added to a pesticide to improve contact, allow dilution when dilutent is immiscible with toxicant, inhibit settling out of solids or liquid droplets, or otherwise improved physical features of pesticidal formulations.
Aerosol - A colloidal suspension of solids or liquids in air, spray droplets of less than 50 microns in diameter.
AGDISP - A computer model that predicts the turbulent dispersion and ground deposition of aerially released material from discrete nozzles. The model includes the near aircraft effects of wingtips, vortices, propellers, jet engines, helicopter downwash and wide-body influence. Crosswind, droplet evaporation and simple canopy penetration effects are included. The code predicts the effects of turbulence on the particle paths. The model is suitable for predicting the near wake particle trajectories and their deposition patterns on the ground, and is useable for parametric studies and spray scenario evaluations.
Aircraft Calibration - The process of measuring and adjusting the flow rate from the spray boom to ensure that the desired application rate is maintained.
Ambient Air - The air of the surrounding environment.
Application Rate - (1) The total volume of liquid or mass of dry material applied per unit area based upon the output rate of the applicator and the area covered per unit time. (2) The total amount of chemical dispensed onto a crop, includes the active ingredient, carrier medium and all additives.
Atomize - To break up a liquid into fine droplets by various means such as pressure, rotating discs, air blast, vibration or ultra-sound.
Biological Control - Control of pests by means of predators, parasites and disease-producing organisms.
Buffer Zone - that part of a target field left untreated due to wind towards a drift sensitive adjacent area. This area can be treated later when the wind is directed away from the sensitive area.
CAR Part 3 - Predecessor of FAR Part 23; refers to normal certified load limits, etc.
CAR Part 8 - Predecessor of FAR Parts 23 and 91.39; refers to Restricted Category of civil aircraft operating limits, e.g., may not fly over congested areas, may carry only essential personnel, etc.
CDA - Controlled Droplet Application.
Concentration - The amount of the substance contained per unit volume of a liquid.
Contact Insecticide - Pesticide which kills an insect pest by direct touch.
Cross-track - Distance left or right of designated track or course.
Defoliant - Any substance or mixture of substances intended to cause the leaves or foliage to drop from a plant, with or without causing abscission.
Drift - The portion of spray that is not deposited within the target area.
Droplet-size - Size of aerodynamic droplet, commonly expressed as droplet diameter in microns.
Dust - A pesticide formulation in dry finely-divided form designed for application as a dry dressing without further preparation or dilution. (generally 10 to 30 um in size).
Effective Swath Width - Sometimes referred to as "swath width" or "swath"- is the distance between the points on the tapered-edge portions of the pesticide distribution pattern where the application rate equals one-half of the maximum rate for the pattern.
Emulsion - A dispersion of fine particles of one liquid, as oil within another liquid, such as water. The one liquid is not dissolved in the other, but the mixture can be stabilized with proper emulsifiers.
Ext. - Exterior load, usually referring to helicopters and slung loads.
FAR Part 23 - See CAR Parts 3 and 8.
Flow Rate - The rate of dispensing liquid from nozzle, measured in terms of gallons or liters per minute, or smaller terms.
Formulation - Herbicide mixture produced and packaged by the manufacturer. Once the formulation is diluted in the field, it is referred to as tank mix.
FSCBG - Forest Service/Cramer/Barry/Grim Forest Spray Model. The FSCBG-II is a computer based model which predicts the dispersion, air concentration and deposition of aerially released particulates. The model accounts for effects of line-source dispersion, meteorology, drop evaporation canopy penetration and aircraft wake. The model is suited for planning, conducting and evaluating aerial spray operations; and for evaluating environmental risk assessments.
Fungicide - The term fungicide includes all preparations intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any fungi.
GPS - Global Positioning System.
Herbicide - Any substance or mixture or substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any weed, including algae or aquatic weed.
Host - Any plant attacked by a parasite (insect, fungi, etc.).
Infestation - Presence of pests on the crop plants.
INS - Inertial Navigational System.
LPHA (Liter/ha) - Liters per hectare.
Mesh - The number of openings per inch or centimeter in a screen type strainer.
Micron - 1/1000 millimeter or 1/25000 inch.
Miscible- Mixes easily with water, a term applies to oils that have an agent added to the oil that makes it easy to dilute with water and remain as a mixture without separation.
Newtonian Fluid - A fluid in which the rate of shear is proportional to the shear force, e.g., water.
Non-Newtonian Fluid - A term used in the deformation and flow of liquids where the rate of shear is disproportional to the shear force.
NTSB - National Transportation Safety Board.
Organic Compound - A compound known to contain the carbon atom
Pesticide - Any substance used for controlling, preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.Includes fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematocides and rodenticides.
Pre-Emergence Treatment - Applied to weeds or soil after the crop is sown but before it has emerged from the soil (may be before or after the weeds have emerged - using a residual or contact weed killer.).
Pre-Planting Treatment - A treatment to the weeds or soil before the crop is planted.
PSI, PSIG - Pounds per square inch or mercury; a measure of pressure.
R - Restricted category.Aircraft may exceed certified limits for specific purposes.
RPV - Remotely Piloted Vehicle; a drone.
Slurry - Thick suspension of pesticide such as used in treating seeds; paste-like preparation resulting from mixing pesticides with water.
Solution - A homogeneous mixture of two or more constituents in which the particles are of molecular magnitude.Will not settle or separate.
Spray Volume Terms and Symbols-
TermSymbolSpray Volume (GPA)
ultra-ultra low volumeu-ulvless than 0.05
ultra-low volumeulv0.05 to 0.5
low volumelv0.5 to 5.0
medium volumemv5.0 to 50
high volumehvgreater than 50
Spray Volume - Total volume of pesticide and liquid carrier applied per unit area.
Spreader - Adjuvant added to the sprays to make the material spread more readily over the foliage rather than deposited in spots.
SS - Stainless Steel.
Standard Temperature (I.C.A.O.) - Adopted by International Civil Aviation Organization: mean sea level (MSL), pressure 1013.25 mb, temperature 15° C.
Suck-back - Partial vacuum created by recirculation bypass feature in 3-way (or control) valve causes negative boom pressure and thus a flow of liquid back toward the tank.
Suspension- A dispersion of small particles of a solid or an immiscible liquid in another liquid or gas.The dispersed particles have little or no affinitiy for the dispersed medium.
Swath Width - The width of spray application (span) in which the amount of spray expressed in various ways equals or exceeds a specified amount thought to produce the requisite pesticide effectiveness.
Systematic - A pesticide applied to soil or foliage, absorbed by plant parts, translocated to other parts of an organism and imparting protection from insect or disease attacks; or, the action of a herbicide in affecting the whole plant, resulting in its death.
TAG - Tactical Advisory Group.
Volume-median Diameter (vmd) - The droplet size diameter that divides the spray volume into equal parts; 50% of the volume is in droplets below the vmd and 50% is above.
VRU- Variable Restrictor Unit, a flow rate regulator in some rotating atomizers.
Wettable Powder - A pesticidal formulation manufactured by milling a pesticide, an inert dilutent and a wetting agent to a fine powder which is easily wetted by water and will go into a semi-permanent suspension.
(Information derived in part from Ekblad and Akesson, 1980; and Quantick, 1985a)
Bishop Equipment Mfg. Inc. 215-368-5307 63 East Broad St. Hatfield, PA 19440